History of Pharmacy and Development




From the time of Hippocrates (460-370 BC) known as the "Father of Medicine", has not known the profession of Pharmacy. A doctor who mendignosis disease, also it is also a "pharmacist" who prepared the drug. The longer the problem of increasingly complex drug delivery, either formula or manufacturing, so that required the existence of a separate skill. In the year 1240 AD, King Frederick II ordered the German official separation between the Pharmacy and Medicine in his decree that the famous "Two Silices". From this history, one thing to ponder is that the root of pharmaceutical science and medical science are the same.
Impact of industrial revolution swept the world pharmaceutical industry with the emergence of drug-industry, so terpisahlah activities in the field of pharmaceutical drug industry and in the field of "provider / peracik" drug (= pharmacy). In this case the pharmaceutical expertise is much needed in a pharmaceutical industry from the pharmacy. It could be argued that the identical pharmaceutical drug manufacturing technology.

Pharmacy education developed along with the pattern for the development of technology capable of producing drug products that meet the requirements and needs. Pharmacy education curriculum developed more towards the drug-making technology to support the success of their students in performing tasks profession. Pharmaceutical Sciences was originally developed from the doctors and traditional medicine that developed in Greece, the Middle East, Asia Minor, China and other Asian Region. At first "medicine" is owned by a particular person by generations of his family. If you frequently watch a Chinese movie, certainly a lot of you guys see the doctors who get their knowledge from the family for generations. That picture of "the pharmaceutical sciences" in ancient China. When in Greece, which is usually regarded as a healer is a preacher. In ancient Greek legend, Asclepius, Hygieia commissioned god Treatment for concocting a mixture of drugs that he has made. Well, by the Greeks he was called sebgai pharmacist (UK: apothecary). While in Egypt, paktek pharmacy is divided into two jobs, namely: What is visiting the sick and working in the temple preparing medicinal concoction. Books about obat2an material was first written in China around 2735 BC, then stood around the year 400 BC medical school in Greece. One of his students was the physician Hippocrates who put the profession at a high level of ethics. Pharmaceutical Sciences is slowly developing. In the Arab world in the eighth century, the pharmaceutical sciences developed by the Arab ilmuawan spread to Europe. At this time the role has begun to distinguish between a medical herbalist with occurred in 1240 when Emperor Frederick II of Rome to do the separation. Notices issued concerning the separation of the states that have keinsyafan masing2 expert knowledge, ethical standards, knowledge, and skills of its own that is different from other sciences. With the release of this imperial edict, then start a new history of development of pharmaceutical sciences as a science of its own.

The development of pharmaceutical science and then spread to almost all the world. Start UK, the United States and Western Europe. College of Pharmacy who first founded in Philadelphia, the United States in 1821 (the school now called the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science). After that, start a new era with the emergence of pharmaceutical science high schools and fakultas2 at the university.

The role of professional or scholarly organization also determined the development of pharmaceutical sciences. Now a lot of good pharmacist organizations nationally and internationally. In Britain, professional organizations first established in 1841 under the name "The Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain". Meanwhile, in the United States after 11 years later under the name "American Pharmaceutical Association." Finally international organization founded in 1910 under the name 'International Pharmaceutical Federation. "

The history of the modern pharmaceutical industry began in 1897 when Felix Hoffman discovered how to add two extra atoms of carbon and five extra atoms of carbon and five extra hydrogen atoms into the quintessence adlam willow bark. The result of this discovery known as aspirin, which eventually led to the birth of the modern pharmaceutical industry companies in the world, namely Bayer. Furthermore, development (R & D) post-World War I. Then, during World War II, the experts tried to find drugs in bulk, such as tuberculosis drugs, hormaon steroids, and contraception and antipsikotika.

Since then, the world pharmaceutical (industry & education) continues to grow, supported by the findings in other areas, such as the use of biotechnology. Pharmacy schools at this time almost found throughout the world. Qibla development of science, if we call bolehh, indeed the United States and Germany (because that's where the drug industry's first stand up).

Viewed from the side of pharmacy education, in Indonesia the majority of pharmacy is not yet a separate field but is included in the field of Science and Mathematics (Mathematics and Natural Sciences), which is a group of pure science (basic science) so that its graduates S1 was not known but a Bachelor of Science degree in Pharmacy.
Pharmaceutical Books handbook states that the pharmacy is a field that involves all aspects of medicine, including: isolation / synthesis, manufacture, control, distribution and use.

Silverman and Lee (1974) in his book, "Pills, Profits and Politics", states that:
1. Pharmatcis who play an important role in helping physicians prescribe rationally. Membanu see that the right medicine, at the right time, in the correct amount, making the patient knows about the "how, when, why" the use of either drug with or without a prescription.
2. Pharmacist is a very reliable and well trained pakart in terms of products / production of drugs that have the greatest opportunity to follow the latest developments in the field of medicine, which can serve both physicians and patients, as "advisers" experienced.
3. Pharmacist position is that Brazilians is key in preventing the use of the wrong drug, prescription drug abuse and irrationally.

While Herfindal in his book "Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics" (1992) stated that the Pharmacist must provide "Therapeutic Judgement" rather than simply as a source of drug information.

Seeing the things above, then the visible presence of a confusion about the position of pharmacy. Where is the actual location of the pharmacy? in the ranks of technology, pure science, medicine or stand alone? confusion in terms of pharmaceutical position will confuse the organizers of pharmacy education, what kind of curriculum should be presented; confused students absorb the material that is increasingly "a mountain" and the confused are graduates (who are still "new"), which was not 'mastered "whatever.

In the UK, since 1962, beginning a new era in pharmacy education, pharmacy education which was originally due to become part of the MIPA, turned into a field that stands alone in developing pharmaceutical utuh.rofesi toward "patient oriented", memuculkan development of Ward Pharmacy ( ward pharmacy) or Clinical Pharmacy (Pharmacy clinics.)

In the USA has been recognized since 1963 that the public and other professionals need information about drugs should come from the pharmacist. The findings of the 1975 statement of the doctors revealed that the pharmacist is the drug information that "severe", unable to meet the needs of the doctors will berkualits Pharmacists drug information is considered very rare / rare, even said that compared with apotekeer, medical representative from the pharmaceutical industry is even more drug information resources for physicians.

The latest development is the emergence of the concept of "Pharmaceutical Care" which brings the practitioner as well as the "professor" to the "territory" of the patient.
Globally seen positive changes in the flow of pharmaceutical toward its roots originally named as partners in service at the patient's physician. Pharmacists are expected to at least be able to be a source of drug information to both the public and other health professionals both in hospitals, pharmacies or pharmacists wherever located.

1. History of Pharmacy in Indonesia

Department of Labor of the Republic of Indonesia (1997) in the "information office for work competence standards" mentioned positions Pharmaceutical Chemical Engineers, (who belong to the health sector) for the position which is closely linked to drugs, with the following requirements: Bachelor of Pharmacy education. Viewed from the side of pharmacy education, in Indonesia the majority of pharmacy is not yet a separate field but is included in the field of Science and Mathematics (Mathematics and Natural Sciences), which is a group of pure science (basic science) so that its graduates S1 was not known but a Bachelor of Science degree in Pharmacy.

What about pharmaceutical developments in Indonesia? Pharmaceutical development arguably began when the founding of quinine factory in Bandung in 1896. Then, keep going until around 1950 in which the government imported finished pharmaceutical products to Indoneisa. Local companies were popping up, there were Kimia Farma, Indofarma, Dankos, and others. In the world of their own education, high school or pharmacy school was also opened in various cities.

IV. Development of Pharmaceutical Sciences / Pharmaceutical

1. General
1. Definition of Professional Pharmacy

Pharmacy profession nerupakan professions related to art and science in terms of provision and processing of natural resource materials and synthetic materials are suitable and enjoyable to be distributed and used in the treatment and prevention of a disease.

1. Definition of pharmacy

Pharmacy is the science that studies how to create, mix, mix, formulating, mengobinasi, analyze, and standardize drugs and treatments are also medicinal properties and its distribution and its use in aman.Farmasi in Greek (Greek) called farmakon which means Medika or drugs.

1. The definition of Pharmacist

The pharmacist is an expert in the field of pharmacy as disebutpada definition above.

1. Pharmacy Career

Pharmaceutical career includes

1. Community pharmacy;
2. Hospital pharmacy;
3. Pharmaceutical wholesaler;
4. Pharmaceutical industry;
5. Pharmacy services;
6. Pharmaceutical Education;
7. Farnasi management.

V. Pharmaceutical Education Curriculum

Pharmacy education curriculum based on science

1. Pharmacology is the study of history; khaiat drug in all aspects, including sources, chemical properties, physical properties, kgiatan physiological / biochemical functions and their effects on physiology, the way crimes, absorption, fate (distribus, biotransformation), excretion in the body, and the effect toksitnya ; and their use in treatment. The branches of pharmacology, namely

a) Farmakognosi is the study of drugs from natural sources, mainly from plants (macroscopic and microscopic forms of plants and other organime that can be used in the treatment).

b) is ilmi studying pharmacodynamic drug activity / how drugs work, the effects of drugs on the function of various organs and the influence of drugs on biochemical reactions and organ structures

c) Farmakokinetk is the study of absorption, distribution, metabolism (biotransformation) and excretion of drugs

d) pharmacotherapy is the study of drug use in the treatment of disease.

e) Toxicology is the study of toxic substances with properties and ways to recognize / identify and resist the effect.

1. Pharmaceutical chemistry (organic and inorganic) is the study of quantitative analysis and kaulitatif chemical compounds, both from the organic group (aliphatic, aromatic, alicyclic, heterocyclic) would also inorganic relating to properties and its use as medicine.

1. Pharmacy / Pharmaceutical is the study of how the provision obat.Meliputi collection, identification, preservation, and standardization of materials medicines; art of the compounding of drugs, as well as the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations to the particular shape until ready to use as a medicine, as well as the development of drugs that includes science and technology in the manufacture of drug dosage forms that can be used and given to the patient.
2. Pharmaceutical Technology is the science which deals with techniques and procedures for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals on an industrial scale, including the working principle serata care / maintenance of production equipment and supporting appropriate Good Manufacturing Process (GMP).
3. Dispensa pharmacy is the science and art of dispensing medicine entuk concentrated in certain stocks until ready to use as a drug.
4. Pharmaceutical Physics is the study of qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic compounds associated with its physical properties, such as spoktrometri mass spectrometry, and spectrophotometric kromatografi.Jenis-type listed in the Pharmacopoeia Indonesia ie infrared spectrophotometry, ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometry, spectrophotometric atomic fluorescence spectrometry, etc.
5. Biofarmasetika is the study of the influence of formulation on the therapeutic activity and drug products.
6. Clinical pharmacy activities include monitoring the peggunaan Oba, memonitori drug side effects, and kgiatan counseling / drug information for the needy.
7. Pharmaceutical Biology is the study of the basics of kehidupn organisms; biological role in health, either directly or indirectly affect human life; sera morphology, anatomy, and taxonomy of plants and animals
8. Pharmacy administration, pharmacy management, and the problem is the study of the administration, management and brhubungan problems with its pharmaceutical entrepreneurial aspects of its aspects.

source : www.google.com
Category: 3 comments

3 comments:

kristinejoy said...

thanks for the information you've given it really helps for us future pharmacist...

Ali Ahmad said...

Very nice please also check this
http://druginformationresources.blogspot.com/

john jackson said...

nice blog and please visit my pharmacy http://meganstore.org/ if you could give me any releavent advise.........

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